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music theory. african-american music. music and maths
Modeling of a compositional system based on the rhythmic analysis of the samba Acreditar - Filipe Rocha, Pedro Zisels and Liduino Pitombeira

21st Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ – 7 to 9 MAY, 2024

Abstract: This article aims to develop a compositional system (Pitombeira, 2020) modeled from the Rhythmic-Formal Structuring (Rocha, 2018) of the melody of the samba Acreditar by Dona Ivone Lara and Délcio Carvalho. To verify the applicability of such a system, an algorithm will be developed in Python, using the Music21 library, capable of generating melodies that manipulate the rhythmic-formal objects extracted from this song while maintaining or altering certain relationships. Based on this, two small modeled compositions will be presented. To achieve these results, the applied methodology includes transcription, analysis of rhythmic profiles (Gentil-Nunes, 2019), paradigmatic analysis of rhythmic profiles, elaboration of the graph of rhythmic-formal structuring (Rocha, 2018), and the rhythmesh (Gentil-Nunes, 2019) of Acreditar.

Keywords: Compositional systems; Rhythmic profile; Systemic modeling; Algorithmic composition; Rhythmic modeling.

Colloquium (online) link: coming soon

Article link (English Version): in press

Article link (Portuguese Version): in press

Compositional Systems Developed from Rhythmic Profile Analysis (RPA) - Filipe Rocha, Pauxy Gentil-Nunes and Liduino Pitombeira

19th Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ – 22 to 26 MAR, 2021

Abstract: This article explores a complementary integration of two distinct analytical approaches. First, the Compositional Systems, proposed by Liduino Pitombeira and Flávio Lima, which underpin the application of Systemic Modeling, a method for articulating intertextuality in the production of original works. Second, Rhythmic Profile Analysis, which formalizes prosodic rhythm based on the studies of Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Pauxy Gentil-Nunes, and Filipe Rocha. The combination of these two perspectives provides the basis for a compositional application that employs graphic representations to explicitly process hypothetical rhythmic systems in the music under analysis, referred to as Rhythmic Modeling. The analysis is developed from recent concepts of these authors, such as alphanumeric and tree notations of prosodic rhythms and the rhythmesh, a system formed by rhythmic profiles and their relationships, to construct a well-defined prosodic-rhythmic space. A practical application of Rhythmic Modeling is presented, with an original example composed from a small excerpt of the Minuet in G Major from Anna Magdalena Bach’s Book.

Keywords: Compositional Systems; Systemic Modeling; Rhythmic Modeling (RM); Rhythmic Profile Analysis (RPA).

Colloquium (online) link:

Link to printed programme:

Article link (English Version): in press
Article link (Portuguese Version): in press

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A Compositional System Developed from Rhythmic-Prosodic Modeling - International Education Week at Louisiana State University

9th Annual International Education Week Research Fair

Abstract: The present poster explores a complementary integration between two distinct analytical approaches. Firstly, the Compositional Systems by Liduino Pitombeira and Flávio Lima, which underpin the application of Systemic Modeling, a method for articulating intertextuality to produce original works. Secondly,
Rhythmic Profile Analysis, which proposes the formalization of prosodic rhythm based on the studies of Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer, Pauxy Gentil-Nunes, and Filipe Rocha. The union of these two perspectives forms the basis for a compositional application that employs graphical representations to explicitly process the rhythmic systems present in the music under analysis, referred to here as Rhythmic Modeling. The analysis is developed using recent concepts from these authors, such as the alphanumeric representation of prosodic rhythms and the rhythmogram (rhythmesh), a system formed by rhythmic profiles, along with their relationships and operations. A practical
application of Rhythmic Modeling is presented, with an original example composed for solo oboe based on a small excerpt from Anna Magdalena Bach's Minuet in G Major.

Keywords: Rhythmic Modeling; Musical Analysis; Musical Composition

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"Rhythmic-Prosodic System Based on Rhythmic Profiles: Theory and Tools for Musical Analysis and Composition" - Filipe Rocha, Pauxy Gentil-Nunes and Liduino Pitombeira

2nd International Conference MÚSICA ANALÍTICA

Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies – University of Coimbra
- 12 to 14 OCT, 2023

Abstract: In this study, we raise some characteristics of prosodic rhythm and rhythmic profiles to formalize a transformational rhythmic system based on the distribution of accents and specific prosodic functions. For this purpose, some concepts already consolidated in rhythm theories will be presented, and others coined during the elaboration of the system. The rhythmic profile in this study is composed of two or three elements with determined functions, called prosodic functions, one of which is necessarily accented (thesis) and the others unaccented (arsis, anacrusis, and duplum). Combining these functions and their expression culminates establishing structural levels and sublevels, resulting in a finite number of configurations. The exhaustive taxonomy of these results establishes a partially ordered set of 296 rhythmic profiles organized through inclusion relations (where each element can fit in its upper neighbor). We believe this vision can bring new applications to composition, analysis, and performance practices.

Keywords: Rhythmic-Prosodic System; Rhythmic Profiles; Prosodic Functions; Musical Analysis; Musical Composition

Programme and Book of Abstracts:

"Jongo: history and practice in the Serrinha community"

Government of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Secretary of State for Culture and Creative Economy of Rio de Janeiro, through the Edital Cultura Presente nas Redes 2, present: "Jongo: história e prática na comunidade da Serrinha".

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to present the traditional musical practice of the Jongo in the Serrinha community, located in Madureira (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), as a tool for teaching and learning music, valuing the local traditional culture. Older musicologists classified Jongo as a folkloric manifestation. The Jongo has its roots in the African Bantu culture of enslaved blacks and was brought to Rio de Janeiro soil, more specifically to the coffee farms of Vale do Paraíba, in the first half of the 19th century. From the decline of the coffee economy and the abolition of slavery in 1888, these enslaved peoples spread across the southeast region. The target public of this production is mainly the school community (teachers and students) of different levels (elementary, middle, and higher) that can use such material as a didactic resource for teaching and learning activities. The inclusion of Jongo in the teaching of music in Brazilian schools is in line with Law 10.639/2003, which amended the Law of Guidelines and Bases for Education, including in the official curriculum of the Teaching Network the mandatory presence of the theme “History and Afro-Brazilian Culture and African”.

Keywords: SECEC-RJ, Cultura Presente, Cultura Presentenas Redes 2, Jongo da Serrinha.

Classes link:

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"Planejamento Composicional a partir de Sistemas Rítmicos" - Musmat Panel I: Post-doctoral Fellows and Students

7th International Conference MUSMAT - 20 OCT 2022, 2022

Article link:

"Serrinha's Traditional Jongo in perspective


15th Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ, 2016

Abstract: This work will approach the structural melodic-harmonic characteristics of the Traditional Jongos of Serrinha from a Schenkerian perspective. The repertoire, object of this research, is restricted to jongos recorded and released by the Bassam group in 1976; by the Grupo Cultural Jongo da Serrinha in 2002 and 2013 – entitled, respectively, Jongo da Serrinha and Vida ao Jongo; and the documentary A Tribute to Mestre Darcy (2005), by Pedro Simonard. The work includes the identification, transcription, and mapping of melodic-structural characteristics of the 19 Traditional Jongos contained in the aforementioned records. The knowledge and mastery of these patterns are highly relevant for a greater understanding of the jongueiro creative process and give rise to the application in new compositions. To this end, a review of Schenkerian techniques and concepts applied to popular music is carried out. Finally, a discussion of the results obtained is carried out, namely: the Ursatzen of the Jongos Tradicionais da Serrinha, the interval and contour characteristics of these melodies, and the prominent structural melodic-harmonic characteristics.

Keywords: Traditional Jongos. Jongo da Serrinha. Schenker. Structure.

Article link:

"Dialogues between Cooper & Meyer, Lerdahl & Jackendoff, and Gentil-Nunes proposals for rhythmic structuring applied to Jongo da Serrinha repertoire"

V TeMA - 5th International Meeting of Music Theory and Analysis, 2019

Abstract: This paper presents an analytical approach to structural characteristics of the rhythmic-formal aspect of Jongo produced in Serrinha in its different forms. The main theoretical references are Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer's (1960) rhythmic analysis proposal, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff's seminal book on the organization of tonal music (1983), and an update of Cooper and Meyer's work by Pauxy Gentil-Nunes (2016). From there, a graphic rereading is presented to represent the rhythmic profiles of a given work from the surface to the most structural layers, called Rhythmic Profile Analysis (APR).


Keywords: Analyze. Rhythmic Profiles. Form. Jongo da Serrinha.

Article link:

"Jongo da Serrinha: analytical bases for a ternary typology" 

ICTM 45th World Conference: Abstracts, 2019

This paper addresses the cultural tradition of Jongo da Serrinha, the intangible cultural heritage of Rio de Janeiro, and the result of interaction between the culture of the Bantu immigrants with Portuguese traditions present in imperial Brazil from the first half of the 19th century. I present the analytical bases for an original ternary typology (traditional Jongo, Jongo-song, and Jongo-plot) that I extensively developed in my MA thesis “Musical structures and hybridization in Jongo da Serrinha” (2018).


The most basic structure of traditional Jongo is of a section of eight measures. Jongo-song is a development of this, composed of two sections (strophe and refrain), each with the same structure as traditional Jongos. Jongo-plot is more modern, and its main feature is extension caused by internally stretching sections by means of thematic development. It can comprise two or more sections. These types appear chronologically in the history of the genre (from the 19th century to the present time); Mestre Darcy was the main exponent and virtually the creator of the Jongo-plot style.


Musical structure is analyzed through two techniques. First, mapping the melodic-harmonic structure, departing from a Schenkerian perspective and taking as reference the work of Joel Lester (1982) and Allen Forte & Stephen Gilbert (1982), an approach justified by the explicit character of tonal structure in the musical manifestation and practice. Second, the intricate formal-rhythmic structure based on the interaction of simple and compound beat divisions, observed through rhythmic profiles guided by the theories of Leonard Meyer (1960) and Pauxy Gentil-Nunes (2016) and formally organized in tree graphs taken from the work of Fred Lerdahl & Ray Jackendorf (1983). 

Link to abstracts:

Link to printed programme:

"Musical structures and hybridization in Jongo da Serrinha"

Dissertation (Master Degree in Music). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Música, Centro de Letras e Artes, Escola de Música, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2018

Abstract: The present work visits, through several methodologies, the cultural manifestation of Jongo da Serrinha, intangible cultural heritage of Rio de Janeiro, having as reference repertoire four albums of the Jongo da Serrinha: LP Quilombo (1976), CD Jongo of Serrinha (2002), documentary O Jongo da Serrinha: a tribute to Mestre Darcy (2005) and CD Vida ao Jongo (2013). A historical review of the musical genre and the Banto culture. A ternary typology of Jongo is presented – Tradicional Jongos, Jongo-Song, and Jongo-Story. Elements of the musical structure are analyzed through two techniques. The mapping of the melodic-harmonic structure is developed from Schenkerian Analysis, departing from the work of Joel Lester (1982) and Allen Forte & Stephen Gilbert (1982). The formal-rhythmic structure is observed through analyzes of rhythmic profiles of Leonard Meyer (1960) and Pauxy Gentil-Nunes (2016), formally organized in tree graphs by Lerdahl (1983). Finally, it is proposed an application in creative processes of the concepts developed in the research in works of the present author: Suite Jongo da Serrinha (2011) for symphony orchestra; Jongos # 2 - Dual (2015) for clarinet and piano; and M'ûkulu (2016) for soprano, choir, and percussion.


Keywords: Jongo. Types of Jongo. Schenkerian Analysis. Rhythmic feet Analysis. Composition. Musical Analysis.

Dissertation link:

"Intertextuality as a cognitive tool in the approach of Serrinha jongueiros to concert music"

14th Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ – Vol. 2 – Processos Criativos, 2015

Abstract: This work will approach the dualistic rhythmic characteristic of Jongo da Serrinha as an intertextual element applied to concert music. It takes the piece for clarinet, piano, and dance entitled Dual, the second work of the Jongos Series by the present author, as a parameter. The objective of this article is to present ways of applying intertextuality and cognitive resources as a tool to bring jongueiros closer to concert music. The importance of this approach is due to the need to give new functions to tradition, a prominent feature of cultural manifestations of resistance, according to Zumthor's (2005) concept. The theoretical framework will consist of a bibliography related to the field of Cognitive Theory (Meyer, 1956) and Post-tonal Theory of composition (Straus, 2005).

Keywords: Intertextuality. Jongo da Serrinha. Concert Music.

Article link:

"Jongo da Serrinha: analysis of melodic partitioning and your applications in the Jongo da Serrinha Suite"

13th Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ, 2014

Abstract: The research in question addresses the melodic structures in the tradition of Jongo da Serrinha, using Linear Partitioning as an analysis technique – application of Partitional Analysis (PA) to the analysis of melodic structuring (GENTIL-NUNES 2009). The melodic behaviors observed are applied to the compositional process of the orchestral piece “Suíte Jongo da Serrinha” (ROCHA, 2011), which was premiered in the same year at the Leopoldo Miguez Hall on the 10th anniversary of the death of Mestre Darcy do Jongo (LUNA, 2013) and in the following year, it was presented again at the Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro (TV GLOBO, 2011) as a tribute to Mestre Darcy’s 80th birthday.

Keywords: Jongo da Serrinha, Partial Analysis, Linear Partitioning, Composition

Article link:

"Gives me the tone: singing in the Fon language"

13th Research Colloquium PPGM-UFRJ, 2014

Abstract: The Fon language is a tonal language spoken by 2 million inhabitants in Benin. Many Brazilian songs use the lexicon from this language. Such presence is the result of the arrival of Africans from the region of present-day Benin brought under slavery. In Brazil, fon is a living language that remains mainly in the context of ritual practices. This work describes the construction of a methodology aimed at the analysis of native speakers of the Fon language and the mechanism by which the “tonality” is transplanted from the spoken to the sung form.

Keywords: Africa – tonal language – fon – music - Brazilian music

Article link:

"Jongo in Concert Project: rhythmic duality and notation"

XXV ANPPOM - 25th National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Music, 2015

Abstract: This article presents an overview of Jongo in Concert project building on the results already achieved in the first phase (essentially 2011 and 2012), through a description of the current phase and then focusing on the dual rhythmic feature present in jongo. In this last section is made a critical approach to musical transcription in ethnographic research and a criterion is established and applied in comparison to the transcripts presented by GANDRA (1995) and VIANNA (2005).


Keywords: Jongo in Concert. Serrinha’s Jongo. Rhythmic duality.

Article link:

"Music and cognition: the musical perception of rhythm in children between 3 and 7 years from a Piagetian perspective"
2010 / 2009

Monograph (Bachelor of Music). Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro  (UNIRIO) / Instituto Villa-Lobos

Abstract: The present work proposes to discuss the theme Music and Cognition, regarding aspects of musical perception of rhythm in children between 3 and 7 years of age (preoperative period) based on the theory of intellectual development proposed by Jean Piaget. The methodology used was bibliographic consultation. Among the authors used are Beyer (1988), Phillips (1971), and Rappaport (1981). Through the theoretical basis raised, I was able to put to the test my methodology of teaching rhythm to children in this age group and I was able to conclude that the appropriate and safe way of teaching must be guided by the child's cognitive process, taking into account their development.

Keywords: perception – rhythm – Piaget

Monograph link:

Article of 6th Symposium on Cognition and Musical Arts:

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